Jasper is an opaque member of the quartz family, found in a variety of colors but most commonly green, red, yellow, brown or mottled (called leopard skin). Because of its rich hues and the fact that it polishes to a high luster, jasper bas been used in jewelry throughout history. Moreover, the protective properties of the stone, which vary depending on the color, have favored its use in amulets and talismans since before recorded history. ln The Old Testament (Exodus,xxviii, 15-30) jasper is named as one of the twelve stones, representing the twelve tribes, to be set in gold and placed in the breastplate of the High Priest. The Egyptians carved scarabs from jasper; the Greeks and Romans made entire vessels from it, believing that the stone's powers would pass to them through the food or drink the vessels contained. Jasper's chief virtue since Antiquity bas lain in its ability to attract poisons and venoms iota itself, thug removing the cause of disease. This is especially believed to be true of green jasper, which was used in the Ancient and Medieval worlds to cure snakebite. The verdant green stone has also been associated for millennia with rainfall, fertility and abundance. Red jasper is said to cure ailments of the blood, and to imbue the wearer with renewed strength and vigor. Its associations with the deities of combat and courage are thought to make red jasper an ideal stone for those seeking victory over existing disease. Yellow and brown jaspers are useful for maintaining a healthy liver and spleen. Jasper is found throughout the world, and mankind is fortunate that in addition to its helpful nature, it is also extremely becoming to wear.