Elam was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization
centered in the far west and southwest of
what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from
the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and
Ilam Province as well as a small part of
southern Iraq. Elamite states were among the
leading political forces of the Ancient Near
East. In classical literature, Elam was also
known as Susiana, which is a name derived
from its capital, Susa.
Elam was part of the early urbanization during
the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The
emergence of written records from around
3000 BC also parallels Sumerian history,
where slightly earlier records have been found.
Its culture played a crucial role during the
Persian Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded
Elam, when the Elamite language remained
among those in official use. In accordance
with geographical and archaeological
matches, some historians argue that the
Elamites comprise a large portion of the
ancestors of the modern day Lurs,whose
language, Luri, split from Middle Persian.