Hacilar lived and died in prehistory. What remained of
Hacilar became a mound on the plain and remained
so until 1956. It was in this year that a local teacher
showed the mound to British archaeologist James
Mellaart. In 1957 the excavation of Hacilar began
under Mellaart's direction and continued until 1960.
The artifacts recovered during this excavation are
currently on display at the Museum of Anatolian
Civilizations in Ankara.
Ceramics from Hacilar show similarities with those of
the Halaf culture from about the same period. There
are also similarities in their figurines.
Up to 11 stratigraphic levels have been identified. The
oldest strata belong to aceramic Neolithic, and are
dated to the 8th millennium BC.
To the 6th millennium BC, nine levels are assigned,
the oldest with ceramics, that were almost entirely
Level VI is dating back to 5600 BC, and there were
many activities at this time. Nine buildings were
found, grouped around a square. Livelihood mainly
consisted of agriculture. Spelt, wheat, barley, peas
and vetch were cultivated. Villagers engaged in the
breeding of animals; bones of cattle, pigs, sheep,
goats and dogs were found. The pottery is simple,
although some specimens represent animals.
Numerous nude female figures, made of clay, are
quite remarkable, and possibly represent some
At level II (c. 5300 BC), the village was fortified and
had a small temple.
The settlement of level I, dating after 5000 BC,
differs significantly from the previous layers, so it is
believed that there were newcomers who settled
here. The site is now heavily fortified. The pottery is
of high quality and is generally painted in red on a